Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources, and physical infrastructure.

The oceans play a major role in the regulation of the earth’s climate, but recently global climate change has begun to threaten marine lives and the livelihoods of coastal communities.

UNCLOS: The 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which opened for signature on 10 December 1982, in Montego Bay, Jamaica, at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, constitutes the main legal framework for the regulation of human activities at sea, setting forth the rights and obligations of states regarding the use of the oceans, their resources, and the protection of the marine and coastal environments. UNCLOS entered into force on 16 November 1994, and is supplemented by the 1994 Deep Seabed Mining Agreement and the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of UNCLOS relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (UNFSA).

UNFCCC: The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. The UNFCCC sets out a framework for stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference