Participants discussing human rights in tipping
points of migration. This event discussed means to deliver adaptation. Two
presentations introduced the session, followed by four discussion groups that
focused on the following themes: urban and rural adaptation; funding and
governance; migration and human rights; and information sharing.

Cornie Huizenga, Clean Air Initiative-Asia, presented on the relationship
between air quality and climate change. He underscored two messages: first, the
need to reduce emissions of ground-level ozone, black carbon and methane for
air quality and climate co-benefits; and second, the increased urgency for
adaptation, given the linkages between air pollution and climate change. He
described recent research by Ramanathan and Feng (2008) on warming that results
from reducing the masking effect of aerosols. He argued that the potential for
more rapid warming emphasizes the urgent need for adaptation implementation.

Tom Downing, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), outlined steps that can be
taken to respond to climate change, including assessments, disaster risk reduction,
building institutional capacity, pilot actions, sectoral climate protection and
migration. He introduced and described the four themes to be taken up in the
discussion groups.

Richard Klein, SEI, presented on behalf of the discussion group on funding and
governance. He said that the group discussed: the need to base adaptation on
committed warming, rather than projected warming; the notion that funding and
governance, as well as the polluter pays principle, is more complicated when
air pollution is considered; and whether developing countries that address air
pollution may have a stronger case for adaptation funding.

Lisa Schipper, SEI, presented on behalf of the urban/rural group. She said that
the drivers and perceptions of mobility, definitions of communities, and means
to balance short- and long-term priorities were discussed.

A. Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced
Studies, presented on behalf of the group on migration and human rights. He
said the discussion focused on: the interaction of human rights and climate
change; whether people would want to migrate if they had the capacity to do so;
how to contend with the loss of culture and identity as a result of migration;
and whether new frames of legal thinking are needed, such as for pastoralists
moving into new regions.

Maria Fernanda Zermoglio, SEI, presented on behalf of the discussion group on
information sharing. She said that the group discussed: challenges in using
information; the iterative nature of converting raw data into actionable
intelligence; data reliability and confidence; and communication between
providers and communities.

Participants discussed: temporal aspects; lack of knowledge concerning the
masking effect of air pollution; and whether the starting point for adaptation
should be data or decisions.
Participants discussing data and information sharing.