KEMENTERIAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

REPUBLIK INDONESIA



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STATUS
OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON THE PERISITENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs)
IN
lang=EN-GB>INDONESIA

The
Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia

lang=EN-GB>I. style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'> Background

style='font-family:Arial'>Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are characteristically
transferred across borders and are accumulated in the human living organisms.
Consequently, POPs are causing pollution on the global scale, for example
it has been detected in some organisms such as fish and birds and also threats
to the environment.

style='font-family:Arial'>The Stockholm Convention is the International Treaty
that concerns on such substances of POPs, which was adopted in Stockholm on
May 2001. The objective of the Convention is to reduce or eliminate
the 12 types of POPs, such as DDT, dioxins/furans and PCBs through cooperation
with countries around the world in order to protect human health and the environment.

style='font-family:Arial'>Subsequently, the Convention has put into effect that
makes countries need to make sure of its implementation appropriately. There
for, monitoring level of POPs remaining in the environment at the regional
and global basis is very important. In fact, it will become more indispensable
to conduct environmental inventory or survey relating to POPs in every country.

style='font-family:Arial'>In order to obligate the article 11 of the Convention
and to share the information of the national status on POPs, the Ministry
of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia has carrying out the inventory
program to determine the actual state of environmentally pollution caused
by chemical POPs and identify the concentration level of chemical POPs in
the environment.

style='font-family:Arial'>In the hope of contributing to international progress
in measure of chemical POPs, the Government of Indonesia wishes to this report
can contribute to the international community continuously.

II.
Monitoring Program on POPs in
Indonesia

style='font-family:Arial'>Monitoring Program of chemical POPs has been taken on
February until April of 2003 under the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project
with the title “Enabling activities to facilitate early action on the implementation
of the Stockholm Convention on POPs in
lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>�. The objectives of the inventory
activities are to identify and determine the following matters:

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
Sources and releases
into the environment by undertaking inventories of export, import, use and
distribution of chemical POPs;

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
Presence, level
and trends in humans and the environment by undertaking inventories of PCBs,
PCDD/PCDF releases in to the environment, contaminated sites and obsolete
stocks;

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
Effects on human
health and the environment by assessing the population’s exposures to chemical
POPs;

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
Existing the capacity
building by assessing infrastructure, enforcement, monitoring and R&D
capacities.

style='font-family:Arial'>Further, the result of inventory study will use as a
basis of formulating and developing the National Implementation Plan (NIP)
under the obligations of Article 7 to Convention.

III.
Environmental Survey and Monitoring Result

1.
lang=EN-GB>National Regulation

lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal;'>Since a Conference of Plenipotentiaries
adopted the Stockholm Convention on 22 May 2001 style='font-weight:normal;'>, lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal;'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal;'> was one of the countries signed the Convention.
In respect to the Convention, the Government of Indonesia has stipulated some
regulations such as follow:

Government Regulation Number 74 of 2001 concerning Hazardous Substance Management.
In this regulation, the used of nine organochlorine POPs and PCBs
lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal;'> are already banned.
lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal;'>

Government
Regulation Number 18 Year 1999 jo. Governmental Regulation Number 85 Year
1999 concerning Hazardous Waste Management. This regulation controls
the air emission standard of the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of incineration
process for dioxins and furans (99,9999%).

Other
related regulations stated by Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health.

lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal'>Although some regulations have been stipulated,
style='font-weight:normal'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal'> until now does not stated yet the parameter
standard for all chemical POPs such as dioxins and furans, whether into human
life and the environment.

style='font-family:Arial'>2. Existing
Data availability of POPs

Despite the fact that the chemicals POPs have been banned such as DDT is already
banned since 1989, there are still sum of DDT in the environment, for example
from Cilacap estuarine, Central Java found the concentration of DDT is about
0.0019 mg/L in the surface water, micro-plankton (2.6 mg/kg dry weight base)
and bio-indication fish, mugil sp. (28.7 mg/kg). This is indicating
that the characteristic of DDT is bio-accumulated in aquatic food chain and
persistence in a tropical environment (Noegrohati, 2000).

style='font-family:Arial'>2. a. POPs Used and Stockpile

Although the chemical POPs have been banned for use in Indonesia style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>, there is no information enough
on stockpile of these POPs available at present. Some studies have been
conducted to get information of the current status of chemical POPs in the human
living and the environment.

The use of DDT was very extensive in the past for controlling the disease vector
of malaria, which average of 2565,4 ton DDT was used every year from 1974
to 1982. Table 1 shows the use of DDT for malaria diseases control (Made
Sumatra, 1985).

style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>Table 1. The use
of DDT (ton) for malaria disease control in style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>Indonesia

style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>Year 1974-1982

Year

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>PROVINCES IN IDONESIA

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>West

Java

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Central

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Java

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Yogya

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>East

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Java

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Bali

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>North

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Smtr

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>South

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Smtr

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Lampung

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>South

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Slws

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Others

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Total

74/75

75/76

76/77

77/78

78/79

79/80

80/81

81/82

151.7

143.6

181.2

260.9

260.5

121.8

116.8

118.4

383.9

264.4

1334.3

1518.8

1467.2

114.5

515.4

693.2

46.9

171.9

161.3

130.7

154.8

45.0

43.3

100.2

444.7

874.1

1583.6

1547.1

1409.8

768.5

522.7

356.0

32.0

44.1

32.5

50.7

33.2

33.1

29.3

23.9

67.8

69.1

50.9

69.4

64.3

68.7

64.1

56.4

24.6

30.2

21.7

32.4

31.2

26.8

40.0

42.6

16.4

30.1

22.4

40.5

40.6

55.8

69.4

73.6

21.3

26.7

29.7

34.7

38.8

35.3

38.1

45.0

103.0

139.3

161.2

191.9

241.3

279.9

313.4

374.3

1347.5

1748.1

3578.7

3867.6

3741.6

2549.3

1752.1

1888.6

DDT was formulated in style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>Indonesia style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'> by PT. Montroze Indonesia style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'> with the production capacity of
the formulation plant was about 7000 ton per year. Then the Government
of Indonesia in 1992 closed down the plant. Table 2 shows the DDT production
from 1986 to 1991.

style='font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;'>Table 2. DDT production
(kg) from 1986 to 1991

Description

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>Year

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1986

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1987

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1988

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1989

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1990

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>1991

Production

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>4,082

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3,662

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>2,693

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>4,634

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>4,516

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>2,920

Sold:

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;'>-
lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Arial'>Indonesia

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;'>-
Export

lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt;'>-
Factory stock at the end of year

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>831

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>2,582

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>339

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>271

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3,109

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>681

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>379

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>2,187

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>788

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>763

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3,995

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>664

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>521

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>6,237

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>1,578

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>544

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>3,883

style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>71

lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>2.b. POPs Contamination

Extensive
use DDT in the past has caused wide spread contamination to the environment
and foodstuff due to the persistence characteristic of DDT. Some studies
have been conducted by Made Sumatra, 1982, which monitored insecticides residue
in sediments, water, fish and mangrove at the Cimanuk Delta. It was
found that DDT residues were detected in the sediment sample with the range
of total DDT is about 7.8 ppb up to 183.3 ppb and DDT residues was also detected
with the range from 0 ppt to 2227 ppt. Twenty fish (crab, shrimp, mild
fish, etc) were analysed and DDT was detected in range 18 ppb to 1525 ppb.

Recently
Environmental Management Centre (PUSARPEDAL), Ministry of Environment in collaboration
with United Nation University, UNU (Japan) and JICA Project conducted POPs
residues monitoring in the river, seawater, sediments and soil from West Java,
Central Java, East Java, Yogyakarta, Lampung, West Sumatra, North Sumatra
and Bali. Trace amounts of DDT, aldrin, dieldrin were detected most
at the level below 0 ppt or undetected in monitoring of the samples.
The POPs residues in several sediments were found at ppb levels (0.41-20.38
ppb). No residue was detected in majority of the sediment samples (see
Figure 1, 2 and 3.). Appendix 1, 2, 3 and 4 show the POPs concentrations
in the river, sediment river and soil in some locations in
lang=EN-GB>Indonesia lang=EN-GB> by year 2001.

Figure
1
. Pops Concentration in Semarang River, Central Java Year 2001


src="/i/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025">

Figure
2.
POPs Concentration in the Sediment River, West Java Year 2001


src="/i/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026">

Figure
3.
POPs Concentration in Soil, West Java Year 2001


src="/i/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027">

3 lang=EN-GB>. style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'> Current
Study on Chemical POPs Survey

style='font-family:Arial;'>As stated above that the Ministry of the Environment
currently has taken inventory program on POPs
lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>under the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
project with the title “Enabling activities to facilitate early action on
the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on POPs in lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>�. The study was held in some provinces in
Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'> started on February to April 2003, which
focus on farming and industrial area. The study area are covered Jakarta,
Bogor (West Java) Karo (North Sumatra), Bali, Bandung (West Java), Malang
(East Java), Brebes (Central Java), Cilegon (Banten), Padang (West Sumatra)
and Semarang (Central Java).

style='font-family:Arial;'>The objective of POPs project is to strengthen the
national capability and to enhance knowledge and understanding amongst decision
makers, managers, industries and public to met the obligations of the Stockholm
Convention and manage the elimination of chemical POPs.

style='font-family:Arial;'>The results of the current monitoring program on POPs
into the environment are given in the appendix 5 to appendix 10.

lang=EN-GB>IV. style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>
Future Program

lang=EN-GB>Article 7 of the Stockholm Convention stated that each party shall
develop and endeavour to implement a plan for the implementation (NIP) of
its obligations under the Convention. Accordingly, the Government of
Indonesia has a plan to develop the NIP.

style='font-family:Arial'>The NIP and its action plans will be based on the finding
of the assessment and inventory reports as mentioned above. Relevant international
management options will be reviewed for the selection of the most appropriate
alternatives to identify those management options which can be implemented
using existing management system or which need little adjustment in the present
legislation.

lang=EN-GB style='font-weight:normal'>

V. Conclusion
and Recommendation

a.
Conclusion

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
With the present
legislations
lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'> feel adequate to manage POPs listed in Annex
A. However, it is needed to set up the specific regulation to control
the unintended products such as dioxins and furans.

style='font-family:Wingdings;'>§
However the limited
database available on POPs, we still cannot make any adjustment of the adverse
impact from the chemical POPs. There so still need to initiate
and develop the comprehensive study to collect precisely database on POPs
in
lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'> and implement the Best Available Technology
(BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) for POPs contaminated sites (Malang
and Bogor)

style='font-family:Arial;'>b.
lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Recommendation

  • To be able on the implementation of the Stockholm Convention in style='font-family:Arial;'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial;'> successful, data on existing POPs in the
    environment and human health should be available. There so, continuing
    POPs monitoring should be performed in order to provide the provision national
    policy of reducing and eliminating chemicals POPs.
  • Encouragement
    from developed countries to developing countries in the implementation of
    the Stockholm Convention through the supporting of the national capability
    in order to achieve the objective of the Convention.
  • Introducing
    the precautionary action of the POPs management in
    lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Indonesia lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'> should be established to achieve the target
    value and intervention value to the environment.
  • lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Building capacity to assess database and
    establishing the clearinghouse mechanism on chemical POPs management within
    Asia Pacific Region basis in order to encourage communication amongst government,
    public, private sectors and international organizations.
  • lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>Basic analytical methods should be selected
    by setting a target lower limit for analysis for each parameter such as
    air, water, sediment/soil and wildlife.
  • lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Arial'>There some issues should be encouraged to
    control the chemical POPs: such as follow:
  1. style='font-family:Arial;'>
    Building capacity networking
    system amongst all stakeholders of POPs chemical control.
  2. Promoting
    health awareness on POPs through the campaign program and mass media.
  3. Conducting
    study on human health and ecological assessment of POPs chemical.
    style='font-family:Arial;'>